|Anaerobes ( bacteriological examination)|
|Aerobes, anaerobes (bacteriological examination)|
|Alergological examination of sera 36 alergens|
|Anaplasma (in blood)|
|Antibiotic susceptibility standard|
|Antibitic susceptibility special|
|Babesia canis ( in blood)|
|Bacteriological examination – ear|
|Bacteriological examination- wound|
|Backteriological examination – vagina|
|Bacteriological examination – prepucium|
|Bacteriologcal examination – nasal cavity, discharge|
|Bacteriological examination – pharynx, oral cavity|
|Bacteriological examination – feces|
|Bacteriological examination – discharges and efusions|
|Bacteriological examination – blood|
|Bacteriological examination- joint liquid|
|Bacteriological examination –tracheal lavage|
|Borrelia burgdorferi ( Lyme disease)|
|Bacteria in urine|
|Brucella canis (cause of abortion)|
|Campylobacter ( cause of diarrhea in dogs)|
|Cellulose strip ( parasites on the skin), Chlorine, Cholesterol|
|Cinyclomyces guttulatus ( ause of diarrhea in dogs)|
|Citology- respiratory system ( examination of cells)|
|Citology- skin surface|
|Citology – prepucium|
|Citology – urine|
|Citology – vagina|
|Citology – joint liquid|
|Citology – liquor|
|Corona virus – mačka Corona virus – cat ( cause of fatal feline disease)|
|Cryptosporidium sp. ( caus of diarrhea in dogs)|
|Citology – scraping|
|Citology- blood smear|
|Dermatophytes (fungal infection of the skin)|
|Differential bood smear (blood examination)|
|Distemper IgG, IgM|
|Estradiol ( sexual hormone)|
|Ehrlichia canis – antibodies|
|Fecal citology ( examination of the stool), Fecal examination of pet birds, Fecal examination of pet reptiles, Feval examination of pet rodents and rabbits|
|FeLV (cause of severe feline disease)|
|Fibrinogen (blood coagulation capacity)|
|FIP ( cause of feline infectious peritonitis)|
|FIV ( cause of immunodeficiency in cats)|
|Gama glutamyl transferaze|
|Giardia duodenalis, coprological examination (examination of the stool)|
|Giardia duodenalis immunofluorescence|
|Hepatozoon canis ( in blood)|
|Herpes virus cat|
|Herpes virus dog|
|Histopathological examination tissue, tumor etc.|
|Leishmania citology ( lymph node smear examination)|
|Leishmania – antibodies|
|Myclogical examination – cultivation|
|Microfilariae (blood examination)|
|Prophile thyroid gland dog|
|Prophyle thyroid gland cat|
|Parvovirus-feces ( cause of severe canine disease)|
|Reticulocytes (blood examination)|
|Salmonella ( cause of diarrhea)|
|Testosterone (sexual hormone)|
|Toksoplasma IgG IgM|
|Trirtrichomonas foetus (cause of chronic feline diarrhea)|
|Toxoplasma- feces ( stool examination of the cat)|
|Total proteins – urine|
In the collaboration with the oficial laboratories hereditary genetic diseases of dogs and cats are available.
Albumin is a small protein produced by the liver. Albumin acts as a sponge to hold water in the blood vessels. When blood albumin is decreased, the pressure created by the heart forcing blood through the blood vessels causes fluid to leak out of the blood vessels and accumulate in body cavities such as the abdominal cavity or in tissues as edema. Albumin is decreased if the liver is damaged and cannot produce an adequate amount of albumin or if albumin is lost through damaged intestine or in the urine due to kidney disease. The only cause of increased albumin is dehydration.
Alkaline phosphatase originates from many tissues in the body. When alkaline phosphatase is increased in the bloodstream of a dog the most common causes are liver disease, bone disease or increased blood cortisol either because prednisone or similar drug is being given to the pet or because the animal has Cushing’s disease (hyperadrenocorticism). In cats, the most common causes of increased alkaline phosphatase are liver and bone disease.
ALT is an enzyme produced by liver cells. Liver damage causes ALT to increase in the bloodstream. ALT elevation does not provide information as to whether the liver disease is reversible or not.
Amylase is an enzyme produced by the pancreas and the intestinal tract. Amylase helps the body breakdown sugars. Amylase may be increased in the blood in animals with inflammation (pancreatitis) or cancer of the pancreas. Sometimes pancreatitis is difficult to diagnose and some dogs and cats with pancreatitis will have normal amounts of amylase in the blood. Lipase is another pancreatic enzyme which is responsible for the breakdown of fats and which may be increased in patients with pancreatic inflammation or cancer.
Bile acids are produced by the liver and are involved in fat breakdown. A bile acid test is used to evaluate the function of the liver and the blood flow to the liver. Patients with abnormal blood flow to the liver, a condition known as portosystemic shunt will have abnormal levels of bile acids. The bile acid test measures a fasting blood sample and a blood sample two hours after eating.
Bilirubin is produced by the liver from old red blood cells. Bilirubin is further broken down and eliminated in both the urine and stool. Bilirubin is increased in the blood in patients with some types of liver disease, gallbladder disease or in patients who are destroying the red blood cells at a faster than normal rate (hemolysis). Large amounts of bilirubin in the bloodstream will give a yellow color to non-furred parts of the body, which is called icterus or jaundice. Icterus is most easily recognized in the tissues around the eye, inside the ears and on the gums.
BUN (blood urea nitrogen) is influenced by the liver, kidneys, and by dehydration. Blood urea nitrogen is a waste product produced by the liver from proteins from the diet, and is eliminated from the body by the kidneys. A low BUN can be seen with liver disease and an increased BUN is seen in pets with kidney disease. The kidneys must be damaged to the point that 75% of the kidneys are nonfunctional before BUN will increase. Pets that are severely dehydrated will have an increased BUN as the kidneys of a dehydrated patient don’t get a normal amount of blood presented to them, so the waste products do not get to the kidneys to be eliminated.
Calcium in the bloodstream originates from the bones. The body has hormones, which cause bone to release calcium into the blood and to remove calcium from the blood and place it back into bone. Abnormally high calcium in the blood occurs much more commonly than low calcium. High blood calcium is most commonly associated with cancer. Less common causes of elevated calcium are chronic kidney failure, primary hyperparathyroidism which is over-function of the parathyroid gland, poisoning with certain types of rodent bait and bone disease.
Low blood calcium may occur in dogs and cats just before giving birth or while they are nursing their young. This is called eclampsia and occurs more commonly in small breed dogs. Eclampsia causes the animal to have rigid muscles which is called tetany. Another cause of low blood calcium is malfunction of the parathyroid glands which produce a hormone (PTH) that controls blood calcium levels. Animals poisoned with antifreeze may have a very low blood calcium.
Cholesterol is a form of fat. Cholesterol can be increased in the bloodstream for many reasons in dogs. It is much less common for cats to have increased cholesterol. Some of the diseases that cause elevated cholesterol are hypothyroidism, Cushing’s disease, diabetes and kidney diseases that cause protein to be lost in the urine. High cholesterol does not predispose dogs and cats to heart and blood vessel disease as it does in people.
Creatinine is a waste product that originates from muscles and is eliminated from the body by the kidneys. An elevation of creatinine is due to kidney disease or dehydration. Both creatinine and BUN increase in the bloodstream at the same time in patients with kidney disease.
Creatinine kinase (CK) is released into the blood from damaged muscle. Elevation of creatinine kinase therefore suggests damage to muscle including heart muscle.
Glucose is blood sugar. Glucose is increased in dogs and cats with diabetes mellitus. It may be mildly increased in dogs with Cushing’s disease. Glucose can temporarily increase in the blood if the dog or cat is excited by having a blood sample drawn. This is especially true of cats. A quick test to determine whether a glucose elevation is transient or permanent is to look at the urine. If the glucose is chronically elevated there will be an increased amount of glucose in the urine as well.
Low blood sugar occurs less commonly and can be a sign of pancreatic cancer or overwhelming infection (sepsis). Low blood sugar can cause depression or seizures. Low blood sugar can be seen if the blood sample is improperly handled. Red blood cells will use glucose so typically red blood cells are removed from the blood sample and the clear part of the blood (plasma or serum), is used for analysis.
Phosphorus in the bloodstream originates from bones and is controlled by the same hormone, PTH (parathyroid hormone) which controls blood calcium. Phosphorus is increased in the bloodstream in patients with chronic kidney disease. Like BUN and creatinine, phosphorus increases in these patients when about 75 percent of both kidneys is damaged.
Potassium is increased in the bloodstream in the pet with acute kidney failure such as kidney failure caused by antifreeze poisoning, in dogs with Addison’s disease and in animals with a ruptured or obstructed bladder.
Potassium is lost from the body in vomit, diarrhea and urine. Pets that are not eating may have a low blood potassium. Low blood potassium can cause the pet to feel weak. Cats with low potassium may develop painful muscles.
Sodium may be slightly increased in the blood if the patient is dehydrated although many dehydrated dogs and cats have a normal blood sodium. Low blood sodium is most commonly seen with Addison’s disease (hypoadrenocorticism).
Total protein includes albumin and larger proteins called globulins. Included in the globulins are antibodies which are protein molecules. Total protein can be increased if the dog or cat is dehydrated or if the pet’s immune system is being stimulated to produce large amounts of antibody. Total protein is decreased in the same situations which reduce albumin or if the pet has an abnormal immune system and cannot produce antibodies.
Urinalysis: A urine sample can provide information about several organ systems. The concentration, color, clarity and microscopic examination of the urine sample can provide diagnostic information.
Urine may be obtained by catching a sample during normal urination, by passing a catheter into the bladder or by placing a small needle through the body wall into the bladder, a procedure called cystocentesis. Depending upon why the urine sample is being collected, one collection method may be preferred over another. Inquire at the time you make an appointment for veterinary care if a urine sample may be collected. Preventing your pet from urinating prior to the appointment will assure that your pet’s bladder will contain urine for sampling.